Placement and displacement. These two geographic forces drive tensions between Sudan and South Sudan as conflicts in the border region escalate into transnational violence. Resource placement has proved fertile ground for armed conflict. While South Sudan holds vital oil resources, Sudan controls access to major northern export channels. Disputes over oil, land and water have led to outbreaks of violence and caused mass displacement in both countries. Refugees are especially fleeing the border region. Estimates say as many has 5.2 million people have been displaced.